Thursday, January 10, 2013

PANELET DIELLORE (Solar Panels - homemade)

Solar Panels
solar panel (solar modulephotovoltaic module or panel) is a packaged, connected assembly of photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each panel is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions, and typically ranges from 100 to 320 watts. The efficency of a panel determines the area of a panel given the same rated output - an 8% efficient 230 watt panel will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt panel. Because a single solar panel can produce only a limited amount of power, most installations contain multiple panels. A photovoltaic system typically includes an array of solar panels, an inverter, and sometimes a battery and or solar tracker and interconnection wiring.

You've probably seen calculators with solar cells -- devices that never need batteries and in some cases, don't even have an off button. As long as there's enough light, they seem to work forever. You may also have seen larger solar panels, perhaps on emergency road signs, call boxes, buoys and even in parking lots to power the lights.
video
Although these larger panels aren't as common as solar-powered calculators, they're out there and not that hard to spot if you know where to look. In fact, photovoltaics -- which were once used almost exclusively in space, powering satellites' electrical systems as far back as 1958 -- are being used more and more in less exotic ways. The technology continues to pop up in new devices all the time, from sunglasses to electric vehicle charging stations.

The hope for a "solar revolution" has been floating around for decades -- the idea that one day we'll all use free electricity fro­m the sun. This is a seductive promise, because on a bright, sunny day, the sun's rays give off approximately 1,000 watts of energy per square meter of the planet's surface. If we could collect all of that energy, we could easily power our homes and offices for free.
In this article­, we will examine solar cells to learn how they convert the sun's energy directly into electricity. In the process, you will learn why we're getting closer to using the sun's energy on a daily basis, and why we still have more research to ­do before the process becomes cost-effective.

Here is the video where i have found how to build a home solar panel:




Here i have learned how to build a simple homemade solar panel by Robert Smith.

He's got 18 videos included the steps to follow and the result test of the solar panel.

Based on his explanation i am going to built it by myself for my final test of my diploma to end the master.
Here you will find all the stages you going to build a solar panel:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a4BKuH8mqw4

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uaF33S5EExQ&feature=relmfu
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-DTnW_UtWA&feature=relmfu
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=msavNW7UrPc&feature=relmfu
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HIgzvnLdIsw&feature=relmfu
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FQ9vk-x33Bw&feature=relmfu
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbSJFcdqvE0&feature=relmfu
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbSJFcdqvE0&feature=relmfu
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JuRB8HIG8Ak&feature=relmfu
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-xZm4qENiXM&feature=relmfu
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lgLxLnrAG7I&feature=relmfu
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LODPDVtVTis&feature=relmfu
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfZ3peeDZdo&feature=relmfu
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RPGR4OhiYaM&feature=relmfu


Building the Solar Array

Step 1 - Assembling and Constructing the Housing
The housing, usually made out of wood, is where the solar array will rest.  You need a sturdy, weather resistant flat surface to lay it on, and a border to keep it in place. You will also need a thin, rigid, non-conductive material on which the solar panels will physically sit on inside the array.  The whole thing will be covered with plexi-glass.

Section Materials

-    Plywood 3/8 inch thick; with enough area to fit at least 36 3x6 inch solar cells and sturdy enough to withstand weather.
-     Wood ¾ in. x ¾ in. for the border
-     Paint  or UV protector
-     Hard, thin, non-conductive lining for the housing
-     Silicone glue
-     Screws and a screwdriver
-     Drill

Before assembling the housing, make sure you have enough plywood area to place at least 3 rows by 12 columns of solar panels (or four rows by nine columns) with a half-inch to an inch of space in between them.  Use the silicon glue to glue your wooden border to the edge of your plywood base, making a shallow box. Screw the wooden border into place through the back of the plywood for additional stability. If you wish, you can divide the plywood area in half along the



width, with a length of the ¾ in. wood to create two placement areas on one panel.  Your panel will be tilted up so that the narrow ends are “high and low ; locate the end which will be the lower end. Drill a row of holes through the wood border on the lower end. These holes will allow any moisture that collects inside the panel to drain out safely.
You must protect the actual wood from the elements; either paint it with at least three coats or treat the wood with at least three coats of UV protector.

Step 2 Assembling the Solar Array
The solar array is the crux of this project; it will supply your electricity. You will need to connect the panels to each other with tabbing wire to facilitate the current traveling through the array.  The electricity will travel in series—up one row of cells, down another, up the next, et cetera.  The positive and the negative ends of the array will each lead into one
wire; these wires will later be brought together and terminate
in either a plug that connects to a charge controller or directly into a battery or a junction box. IMPORTANT: INTEGRATING  THE SOLAR PANEL DIRECTLY INTO A JUNCTION BOX AND/OR OTHER KINDS OF DIRECT HOME
WIRING SHOULD BE HANDLED BY A TRAINED AND LICENSED ELECTRICIAN.

Section Materials

-     Solar cells, at least 36*
-     Flat, thin tin-coated tabbing wire
-     Soldering iron
-     Mask
-     Silicone glue
-     Rosin flux pen
-     Non-conductive backing
-     Thicker wire for the bus, e.g. copper wire
-    Insulated wire, high enough gauge to carry amp output of the panel

*Note: Solar cells are thin and fragile; always wear gloves and take care when handling, moving, and working with them.

Lay the solar cells out on the non-conductive backing to make sure that the arrangement will fit; trace an outline if necessary.  Arrange the cells in their rows, light-colored (positive, bottom-facing, back) side up.  With the soldering iron, attach the tabs coming off of the dark colored (negative, top facing, front) side of the cell to the indicated squares on the positive side of the cell. CAUTION: SOLDER FUMES ARE NOXIOUS AND TOXIC. ALWAYS WEAR A MASK,
AND ALWAYS SOLDER IN A WELL VENTILATED AREA.  Repeat until you have connected a row of cells, and then repeat the whole process to create the remaining rows of solar cells.

To be able to join two rows together in series, they must lie next to and run opposite of each other.  It is best to glue down the solar cells to the non-conductive backing, row by row, before joining the rows to each other; put only one
daub of silicone glue in the center of the back of each cell (so that the cell is allowed to stretch and contract with the weather) and lightly press it down into place.  Repeat with the rest of the rows.



You must connect the rows to each other with a bus wire. Attach a length of copper wire to, on one end, the tabs coming off one row of cells, and, on the other end, to the tabs soldered to the opposite side of the first cell on the adjacent row. Glue each connection down to the backing with the silicone glue to keep the junction in place.  Continue until the power plant of your solar array is complete; remember that the current should run in one directionup one row and down another.

When completed, the array should have two prongs of tabbed wire at the beginning of run and a pair at the end. The end whose prongs touch the light of the first cell is negative, the other end of the run is positive. Use copper wire to join the prongs on the negative end; do the same with the same with the prongs on the positive end.  Connect
these copper joints, one at each end into their own individual wires.

Now would be a good time to test your array with a voltmeter to make sure it is operating sufficiently well. Next, connect the copper wire to the insulated wire that will terminate in your plug or the next part of your integrated system.

Step 3 - Completing the Solar Panel
The panel should be beginning to take shape; all that is left to do is seal the panel.  Care must be taken that everything is in good working order before the final seal; test your array with a voltmeter and make sure that everything is secure.  After





the panel is completed, it can be integrated to the wider electrical system.

Section Materials

-     Solar array, glued to non-conductive backing
-     Housing, assembled and painted or varnished
-     Cut plexi-glass cover
-    Screwdriver with 10 small screws and 10 large screws.
-     Silicone glue
-     Drill


Carefully place the completed and glued solar array into the housing. Make sure there is enough room to lay the wire down between the outer edge of the panels and the perimeter of the housing. Drill a hole into the back of the housing, at the top-tilted side, to feed the insulated wires through.  Carefully lay the wires down, gluing them to the backing in spots to anchor them.  Feed the wires through the hole drilled for them; you can tie the insulated wires in a knot before you do this to prevent any tension from transferring
to the array.  Use the silicone glue to seal the hole that the wires were passed through and hold the wires in place.

Once you are satisfied with the placement of the backing and the lie of the wires, use the small screws to screw the backing down into the plywood. Let the glue used inside the panel dry, preferably overnight, before screwing on the plexi-glass plate; the glue may emit fumes that may leave a film on the inside of the plexi-glass and the surface of the solar cells.





Carefully drill holes into the plexi-glass plate that the large screws will go through; you must make sure that the drilled holes are smaller than the diameter of the screws so that the screws will be able to hold the plexi-glass in place.  Before you glue everything down, use your voltmeter to make sure that your array is putting out the voltage that it is supposed to be.  Also, make sure that all the wiring is rated to carry the
amperage that the solar panel is emitting.  Now is the time to make sure that everything is working properly.

Now you may glue the plexi-glass plate to the wooden housing as well, to reinforce the seal.  Congratulations! Your panel is complete.  Now you can integrate it into your electrical system.

Step 4 Integrating the Solar Panel into Your System
All that is left to do is connect the wires running out of your panel to your wider electrical system.  How the panel integrates is by and large up to the installer.  However, there are some common parts to any electrical setup.
IMPORTANT: INTEGRATING THE SOLAR PANEL DIRECTLY INTO A JUNCTION BOX AND/OR OTHER KIND OF DIRECT HOME WIRING SHOULD BE HANDLED BY A TRAINED AND LICENSED ELECTRICIAN.

Section Materials

-     Completed solar panel
-     Polarized plug (optional)
-     DC Array disconnect (optional)
-     Charge controller
-    Deep cycle batter




-     System meter (optional)
-     Main  DC disconnect (optional)
-     Inverter
-     Generator (optional)





The first thing to decide after completing the solar panel is how integrated you want your solar array to be.  The type, amount, and size of the parts will depend on the scale of your integration.  You may only require a simple, portable setup for a tent or an RV, or you may be integrating your array into a home or business.  Regardless of size, decide whether or not to connect the wires carrying your solar panel’s charge into a jones plug (Figure 4.1), and wire a mating plug to the next piece of equipment in the system. The wire, plugged or not, can next travel into a DC array disconnect (Figure 4.2). Both will help make a highly integrated system easier to disconnect for yearly maintenance.

Whether or not a plug or a DC array disconnect is used, you will still need to connect your system into a charge controller (Figure 4.3), also called asolar regulator.  The charge controller is a necessary part of your power system. It protects the battery by reducing or cutting the flow of electricity when the battery is at or near capacity.  Some
more sophisticated charge controllers will prevent your solar array and battery from discharging in a storm or during night, and others, called shunt charge controllers, will even divert the extra charge into a second battery or water heater.



After the charge controller, the current will continue on to a deep cycle battery  (Figure 4.4) for storage and regulation of power.  This is a specific kind of battery that is used to power medium sized moving machines, like forklifts and floor sweepers.  This battery, unlike a car battery, will deliver a consistent charge to whatever it is powering.  If you so
desire, you can connect your battery to a system meter (Figure 4.5) to monitor how much charge is left in your battery and how much is being used.



The charge will then proceed from the deep cycle battery or system meter to the inverter (Figure 4.6). The inverter converts the direct current from the cell into alternating current; it is necessary if your appliances, like most, run on AC.  You can purchase an inverter that can plug into a power socket and feed power back into your home, or have it wired to your AC breaker panel (Figure 4.7). If you decide on the latter, you MUST have a licensed electrician install the inverter to the breaker panel; it is illegal not to do so in most countries, so contact your power company for details in your area.  You can also attach a main DC disconnect between the battery and the inverter, for easier disconnect of the
inverter.

     Care and Maintenance of Your Solar Panel 

In order to get the most out of your solar panel, you must maintain it regularly. Pick one day a year (Earth Day is easy to remember) to look over your panel and see to its
maintenance and upkeep. Wear gloves when working with
the cells.

Before performing any maintenance, make sure all components of your solar electrical system are disconnected. The panel should be disconnected from everything else.  Check the battery levels and output, and make sure that it is working properly.  Now is the time to make sure that all the equipment and wiring along the electrical system is performing at or near capacity:

-    There should not be water collecting inside the panel; it should be draining out of the holes drilled for that purpose.  Also, look out for condensation on the inside of the panel.
-    Make sure all connections inside and outside the solar panel are tightened, and not broken or burnt. Watch out for potential short circuits; make sure that nothing is touching that shouldn’t be.
-    Clean the panel’s plexi-glass window with a spray cleaner and paper towels.
-     The charge controller must be clean, working, and be
exposed to unobstructed airflow.



Congratulations! You have completed building and installing your solar arrayYou can take pride in the fact that you arenow part of the leading edge in renewable energy, and comfort in your new steps toward energy independence.  As long as the panel is maintained well, it should last for years, giving you, if you power needs grow, the opportunity to build more panels and further take control of your energy needs.
It is not a question of if the world will follow in your
footsteps, it is when.  Good luck, and may the sun shine on all your future endeavors!

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